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Aventis Agriculture comprises the crop science, plant biotechnology, animal nutrition and animal health businesses. Roche produces folic acid mainly for incorporation in its pre-mixes. Niisiis, konkreetse rahvuse väljasuremine on ohtlik fenomen, mida tuleb ka päriselt ette. It produces pharmaceutical drugs for human use. Volume control mechanism: "budgets" General The fundamental idea underlying the cartel was to freeze market shares in both products at the level. The world demand for vitamin E is around tonnes annually, for vitamin A, around tonnes.

VITAMINS 3 Vitamins are a group of micronutrients of various types of organic compounds required in small amounts in human and animal diet for normal growth, development and maintenance of life. Their physiological function in the organism and mode of action are diverse. Some vitamins are essential sources of certain coenzymes necessary for metabolism; others are involved in the metabolism of other vitamins.

All known vitamins can be synthesised chemically. They have to be supplied in the diet or in dietary supplements.

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There are some 15 major vitamins. Vitamins are added to human food products to replace losses in processing, to fortify the product, and also to act as antioxidants or colourants.

VITAMINS 3 Vitamins are a group of micronutrients of various types of organic compounds required in small amounts in human and animal diet for normal growth, development and maintenance of life.

Vitamins for pharmaceutical purposes are marketed to the public as diet supplements in tablet or capsule form. In the cosmetics industry, vitamins are added to skin and healthcare products. Each has specific metabolic functions and is therefore not interchangeable with the other groups. In addition, the various group of vitamins when combined have a complementary synergistic effect.

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Inthe last full year of the cartel for these products, the vitamin E market in the Community was worth ECU million; vitamin A sales aggregated some ECU million.

Table I in the Annex gives the breakdown for each vitamin product by Member State over the same period. A substantial proportion of their "feed grade" vitamin production is not sold on the "free" market but is employed internally in the manufacture of their "pre-mixes".

These are blends containing other nutrients and medication besides vitamin concentrates which are added in small amounts to the main feed mixture. The remainder is sold to wholesalers, pre-mixers or directly to animal feed compounders. Vitamin producers which do not themselves produce particular vitamins may buy in their requirements from other vitamin producers. The individual vitamin product markets Vitamins A and E 22 Vitamin A is a fat-soluble chemical substance with a variety of applications primarily in the feed industry.

Smaller quantities of vitamin A are also sold to the food and pharmaceutical industries.

Sales to the cosmetics industry are minimal. Vitamin A is necessary to ensure normal growth as well as healthy skin, eyes, teeth, gums and hair. Vitamin E is necessary for the formation and functioning of red blood corpuscles, muscles and other tissue. Vitamin E can either be derived from natural sources or be generated as a synthetic product. There is only a very limited competitive overlap between synthetic and natural vitamin E which only occurs in human applications.

Both vitamins are largely bought by the same customers, especially in the animal feed industry. The world demand for vitamin E is around tonnes annually, for vitamin A, around tonnes. BASF entered the market for both products inand shortly afterwards Rhône-Poulenc extended its activities to chaos cutz fat burner arvustused E, for animal feed only.

The Japanese producer Eisai also began marketing vitamin E in Chaos cutz fat burner arvustused for human and animal usage in ; it does not produce vitamin A. Vitamin B1 29 Vitamin B1 thiamin is essential for the metabolism of carbohydrates through its coenzyme functions. Deficiency causes reduction of growth and nervous disorders. It is a water-soluble vitamin used for animal and human nutrition and in the pharmaceutical industry.

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Chemical synthesis is a complex process involving some 15 to 17 different steps. BASF ceased its own production of vitamin B1 in and concluded a five-year supply agreement to obtain its requirements from Roche.

Vitamin B2 32 Vitamin B2 is found in all living cells and is involved in numerous reactions operating energy in cellular metabolism. Riboflavin coenzymes eemalda armastus hakkama rasva essential for the conversion of vitamins B6 and folic acid into valid active form.

So far, only Roche and Takeda produce synthetic vitamin B2; the others employ a fermentation process. Vitamin B5 36 Vitamin B5 pantothenic acid, also referred to as calpan plays a key role in the metabolism of carbohydrates, chaos cutz fat burner arvustused and fats, and is therefore important for the maintenance and repair of all cells and tissues.

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Dietary deficiency of calpan in human beings results in a wide variety of clinical symptoms. In animals, a deficiency of vitamin B5 is manifested in retarded growth, impaired fertility, neuromuscular and dermatological disorders and sudden death.

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Reflecting its chemical composition, the price of d-calpan is double that of dl-calpan. There are also minor producers in Japan, China, Poland and Romania. Alps Japan and companies in Romania and Poland produce dl-calpan. Both Roche and BASF are however integrated downstream into pre-mixes; each owns and operates some seven pre-mix plants in Europe.

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They supply d-calpan both to their own pre-mixing operations captive use and to other pre-mixers. The European market for calpan in was worth some ECU 35 million. Vitamin B6 44 Vitamin B6 pyridoxine serves as a coenzyme for many enzymes involved in the metabolism of amino acids.

It plays a significant role in the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates and fats. Adult ruminants are usually self-sufficient in vitamin B6, but young animals require supplements while growing. Vitamin B6 has a variety of uses in animal and human nutrition and in the pharmaceuticals industry.

It is currently worth about EUR 11 million. Folic acid 48 Folic acid forms part of the B complex of vitamins.

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The name is applied to a whole group of compounds also known as folates or folacin. It plays an important role in the metabolism of DNA and RNA, the carriers of genetic information in all living organisms.

Folic acid reduces the risk of neural tube birth deformities in humans if consumed in adequate quantities by the expectant mother during pregnancy. In humans folic acid deficiency can also result in anaemia. Folic acid deficiency in animals causes anaemia and, in poultry, reduced laying performance and poor feathering. Roche produces folic acid mainly for incorporation in its pre-mixes.

The Japanese folic acid producers do not produce pre-mix, with the exception of a Takeda subsidiary which supplies the product locally in Japan.

Until then Roche did not produce folic acid, but obtained its requirements from Takeda. Vitamin C 52 Vitamin C ascorbic acid is a water-soluble vitamin which is used mainly in the human nutrition and pharmaceutical industries. It is required for the production in the living organism of collagen, the intercellular substance which gives structure to muscles, bone, vascular tissue and cartilage.

Deficiency causes scurvy weakening of the tissues and intercapillary bleeding. Humans are dependent upon vitamin C supply in the diet. Most food producing animals but not fish can synthesise vitamin C themselves, but may require a supplement to natural production. Vitamin C is also used as an antioxidant chaos cutz fat burner arvustused protect the colour or aroma of foodstuffs.

Vitamin D3 56 Vitamin D3, a fat-soluble vitamin like vitamins A and E, is sold either in straight form or more often in a blend with vitamin A known as "AD3". It also plays a role in the proper functioning of muscles, nerves, blood clotting and cell growth.

Deficiency leads to rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults; in animals, it leads to reduced growth and leg disorders and, in poultry, thin egg shells.

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Solvay Pharmaceuticals produced about half the world requirement of vitamin D3 in the early s but its share of the "third party" market was much smaller. Solvay does not produce blends or pre-mixes: it supplies the straight product to other vitamin producers like Rhône-Poulenc, vitamin formulators which buy in concentrated form, distributors and resellers and to pre-mixers and feed producers.

The producers use the D feed grade form as the market grade. The price for feed grade vitamin D3 in Europe in was subject to considerable variations between the different countries.

Vitamin H 61 Vitamin H biotina water-soluble vitamin, assists in the utilisation of protein, folic acid and vitamin B12 the latter is not the subject of the present procedure.

Biotin is produced through chemical synthesis involving some 20 different processes Tanabe is developing a fermentation process but it is not yet in commercial use. It is sold in pure and diluted form. Pharmaceutical grade is marketed in pure form. Lonza ceased production in Beta-carotene and carotinoids 65 Strictly speaking these products are not vitamins.

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Beta-carotene is a pro-vitamin of vitamin A found naturally in chaos cutz fat burner arvustused when ingested it is converted by the living organism into vitamin A. The vast majority of beta-carotene supplies are purchased by the food and also by the pharmaceutical industry.

Carotinoids are generally classified by the colour they produce when ingested by animals. Canthaxanthin and citranaxanthin are used to produce a red or golden colour and are referred to as the red carotinoids. The Community market for canthaxanthin, the principal carotinoid product, is in the region of EUR 50 million annually.

However, there are several indications that point to worldwide markets for each of the vitamin products. This is demonstrated by the fact that a number of companies based in Japan traded in Europe. In addition, all the main companies sold the various products in the main regional markets America, Asia, Europe. The third European producer is Merck in Germany. Roche's B-complex production is at Grenzach in Germany. Roche 76 Hoffmann-La Roche AG is one of the world's largest research-based pharmaceutical and healthcare groups.

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The company's headquarters are in Basel, Switzerland. It has manufacturing facilities in a number of Member States. Vitamin sales worldwide totalled CHF 1,96 billion and carotinoids also the subject of this procedure, although not strictly speaking vitamins CHF million.

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Roche is the largest manufacturer of vitamins both worldwide and in Europe. The company started producing vitamin C by chemical synthesis in and expanded its activities to produce the whole range of vitamins. Its range of production is the widest of all the vitamin producers.

Roche also supplies other vitamin products bought in from other manufacturers so that it markets the full range of vitamins for all possible uses: animal feed, food, pharmaceutical and cosmetics 6.

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Other products of the Division include feed enzymes, emulsifiers, citric acid and fatty acids. Its operations cover oil and gas, bulk chemicals, plastics, high performance chemical products, plant-protection products and pharmaceuticals. The health and nutrition segment of BASF includes the fine chemicals division which in turn includes vitamins for human and animal nutrition.